Windows

A-Z Complete Windows CMD Commands List

A-Z Windows CMD Commands List [ Complete List ]

cmd commands Here is a list of all Windows CMDs sorted alphabetically along with an exclusive PDF of CMDs for future reference for professionals and novices alike.

Command Prompt and CMD commands are unfamiliar territories to most Windows users, they only know it as a black screen for troubleshooting system problems with some fancy commands. cmd commands

If you are a Linux user, then you would know how commands play an important role in various system operations – like how we fiddle with Ubuntu’s apt-get commands to install, update or upgrade software. Unlike Linux, Windows is a user-friendly operating system and we don’t need to play with CMD commands at all to accomplish our task. In most cases, people only open the command prompt when they need to repair a damaged drive, hide certain drives, create a hacking-like environment, etc. cmd commands

 

What are Command Prompt and CMD Commands?

Command Prompt, also known as cmd.exe or cmd – command line translation application in Windows NT series operating systems. And CMD commands are a specific set of instructions given to the command prompt to perform some kind of task or function on your Windows computer.

Most Windows CMD commands are used to automate tasks through scripts and batch files, perform advanced administrative functions, and troubleshoot and resolve certain kinds of Windows problems. cmd commands

So here is an A-Z list of Windows CMD commands to perform the required tasks that you normally perform using the GUI. You can also use these commands to do some interesting hacks through Windows – which we’ll cover soon.

How to access the command line?

Before we begin, let’s see how to open the Command Prompt program.

  1. You can run a command line program in three ways:
  2. Simply by typing cmd in the Start menu search box.
    If you’re using Windows 8, you can access the command prompt via a command prompt shortcut in the Start menu or the Applications screen.
  3. Or you can press CTRL+R to open the RUN utility, type cmd, and press Enter

Note: Many commands can only be run if the command prompt is run as an administrator. To open an elevated command prompt — Find the command prompt shortcut, then right-click it to display the options pop-up menu and select Run as administrator from the pop-up menu. Accept any User Account Control messages or warnings.

 

A-Z Windows CMD Commands 

 

CMD Commands Function
A
 addusers  Used to add and list users in a CSV file
 admodcmd  Used for bulk modifying contents in an active directory
 arp  Address Resolution Protocol is used to map IP address to the hardware address
 assoc  Used to change associations for file extensions
 associat  One step file association
 at  Run a command at a specific time
 atmadm  Display connection info of the ATM adapter
 attrib  Used to change file attributes
B
 bcdboot  Used to create and repair a system partition
 bcdedit  Used to manage boot configuration data
 bitsadmin  Used to manage the Background Intelligent Transfer Service
 bootcfg  Used to edit boot configuration in Windows
 break  Enable/Disable break capability (CTRL+C) in CMD
C
 cacls  Used to change permissions of files
 call  Used one batch program to call another
 certreq  Used to request a certificate from a certification authority
 certutil  Manage Certification Authority files and services
 cd  Used to change folder (directory) or go to a specific one
 change  Used to change terminal services
 chcp  Displays the number of active console code page
 chdir  Same as cd command
 chkdsk  Used to check and repair issues in the disk
 chkntfs  Used to check the NTFS file system
 choice  Accept user input (via keyboard) to a batch file
 cipher  Used to encrypt/decrypt files and folder
 cleanmgr  Used clean temp files and recycle bin automatically
 clip  Copy result of any command (stdin) to Windows clipboard
 cls  Clear CMD screen
 cmd  Used to start a new CMD shell
 cmdkey  Used to manage stored usernames and passwords
 cmstp  Used to install or remove a connection manager service profile
 color  Change the color of the CMD shell using options
 comp  Compare contents of two files or two sets of files
 compact  Compress files and folders on an NTFS partition
 compress  Compress one or more files
 convert  Convert a FAT partition to NTFS
 copy  Copy one or more files to another location
 coreinfo  Show the mapping between logical and physical processors
 cprofile Cleans specified profiles of wasted space and disabled user-specific file associations
 cscmd  Configure offline files on a client computer
 csvde  Import or Export the data of an active directory
D
 date  Used to display the date or change it
 defrag  Used to defragment system hard drive
 del  Used to delete a file(s)
 delprof  Used to delete user profile(s)
 deltree  Used to delete a folder and its sub-folders
 devcon  Access the command line device manager utility
 dir  Used to display files and folders list
 dirquota  Manage File Server Resource Manager quotas
 diruse  Used to display disk usage
 diskcomp  Compare contents of two floppy disks
 diskcopy  Copy data of one floppy disk to another
 diskpart  Make changes to partitions of storage, both internal and connected
 diskshadow  Access the Disk Shadow Copy Service
 diskuse  View used space in folder(s)
 doskey  Used to edit command line, recall commands, and create macros
 driverquery  Display a list of installed device drivers
 dsacls  View and edit access control entries for objects in active directory
 dsadd  Used to add objects to active directory
 dsget  View objects in active directory
 dsquery  Find objects in an active directory
 dsmod  Used to modify objects in an active directory
 dsmove  Rename or move an active directory object.
 dsrm  Remove objects from an active directory
 dsmgmt  Manage Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services
E
echo Turn command-echoing feature on/off, display a message on the screen
endlocal End localization environment changes in a batch file
erase Used to delete on or more file(s)
eventcreate Add custom event to Windows event log (Admin rights required)
eventquerry Display list of events and their properties from event logs
eventtriggers Display and configure event triggers on local and remote machines
exit Exit the command line (Quit current batch script)
expand Uncompress one or more .CAB file(s)
explorer Open Windows Explorer
extract Uncompress one or more Windows cabinet file(s)
F
fc Used to compare two files
find Used to search a specified text string in a file
findstr Used to find string patterns in files
finger Display information about user(s) on a specified remote computer
flattemp Used to enable/disable flat temporary folders
For Run a command in a loop for a file(s) for defined parameter
forfiles Used for batch processing of selected file(s)
format Used to format a disk
freedisk Used to check free space on a disk
fsutil File system utility to manage file and drive properties
ftp Use FTP service to transfer files from one PC to another
ftype Display/ Modify file extension type associations
G
getmac Used to display the MAC address of your network adapter
goto Used to direct a batch program to a line identified by a label
gpresult Display Group Policy Settings and Resultant Set of Policy for a user
gpupdate Update local and active directory based on group policy settings
graftabl Turn on the ability to display an extended character in graphics mode
H
help Display a list of commands and see online information for them
hostname Used to display host name of the computer
I
icacls Used to change permissions of files and folders
iexpress Used to create a self-extracting zip archive
if Used for conditional processing in batch programs
ifmember Display the group(s) an active user belongs to
inuse Replace the files which the OS is currently using (restart required)
ipconfig Display and change Windows IP configuration
ipseccmd Used to configure IP Security policies
ipxroute Display and modify routing table information used by IPX protocol
irftp Used to send files over an infrared link (infrared functionality required)
L
label Used to change the name of a disk
lodctr Update registry values with latest performance counters
logman Used to manage performance monitor logs
logoff Log a user off
logtime Add the date, time, and a message to a text file
lpq Displays print queue status
lpr Used to send a file to a computer running the Line Printer Daemon service
M
macfile Manage files server for Mackintosh
makecab Used to create .cab files
mapisend Used to send email from command line
mbsacli Microsoft Baseline Security Analyser
mem Used to show memory usage
md Used to create directories and sub-directories
mkdir Used to create directories and sub-directories
mklink Used to create symbolic link to a directory
mmc Access Microsoft Management Console
mode Configure COM, LPT, CON system devices
more Display one screen of output at time
mountvol Create, list, or delete a volume mount point
move Used to move files from one folder to another
moveuser Move user account to a domain or between machines
msg Used to send a pop-up message to a user
msiexec Install, modify, configure using Windows Installer
msinfo32 Display system information
mstsc Create a remote desktop connection
N
nbstat Display NetBIOS over TCP/IP information
net Used to manage network resources and services
netdom Network Domain Manager utility
netsh Display or modify network configuration
netstat Display active TCP/IP connections
nlsinfo Used to display locale information
nltest List domain controllers, force remote shutdown, etc
now Display date and time
nslookup Check IP address on a Name Server
ntbackup Backup data to tape using CMD or batch file
ntcmdprompt Runs cmd.exe instead of command.exe in an MS-DOS application
ntdsutil Manage Active Directory Domain Services
ntrights Used to edit user account privileges
ntsd Only for system developers
nvspbind Used to modify network bindings
O
openfiles Queries or displays open files
P
pagefileconfig Display and configure Virtual memory settings
path Set PATH environment variable for executable files
pathping Latency and Packet loss info for each node in the network path
pause Used to stop processing of a batch file
pbadmin Starts Phone Book Administrator
pentnt Detect Floating Point Division error in the Pentium chip
perfmon Access performance monitor in CMD
perms Display a user\’s ACL permissions for a file
ping Test network connection to a computer
popd Go to the latest path/folder stored by PUSHD command
portqry Display TCP and UDP port status
powercfg Used to configure power settings and know battery health
print Used to print a text file(s) from CMD
printbrm For backup/recovery/migration of the print queue
prncnfg Used to configure/rename a printing device
prndrvr List/add/delete printer drivers
prnjobs List/pause/resume/cancel print jobs
prnmngr List/add/delete printers, display/set default printer
prnport List/create/delete TCP printer ports, display/change port configuration
prnqctl Clear printer queue, print a test page
procdump Monitor system for CPU spikes, generate a crash report during a spike
prompt Used to change the Prompt in CMD
psexec Run a CMD process on a remote computer
psfile Display remotely opened files, close an open file
psinfo List system information about a local/remote machine
pskill Kill a process(es) using its name or process ID
pslist Display process status and info about active processes
psloggedon See active users on machine
psloglist Display event log records
pspasswd Used to change account password
psping Used to measure network performance
psservice Display and control services on a machine
psshutdown Shutdown/restart/logoff/lock a local or remote machine
pssuspend Used to suspend a process on a local or remote computer
pushd Change current folder and store previous folder for use by POPD
Q
qgrep Search file(s) for a given string pattern
query process or qprocess Display information about processes
R
rasdial Display Remote Access Service Status
rasphone Manage RAS connections
rcp Copy files to a computer running remote shell service
recover Recover readable data from a defective disk
reg Display/add/change registry keys and values in Windows registry
regedit Import/export/delete settings from a .reg text file
regsvr32 Used to register/unregister a DLL file
regini Used to change registry permissions
relog Export performance counters to other formats like TSV, CSV, SQL
rem Add comments in batch file
ren Used to rename a file(s)
replace Used to replace a file with another file of same name
reset session Used to reset a remote desktop session
rexec Run commands on remote machines running Rexec service
rd Used to delete a folder(s)
rmdir Used to delete a folder(s)
rmtshare Manage file and printer shares local or remote servers
robocopy Used to copy files and folders that have changed
route Display/change the local IP routing table
rsh Run commands on remote servers running RSH service
rsm Manage media resources using Removable storage
runas Run a program as a different user
rundll32 Used to run a DLL program
S
sc Use Service Controller to manage Windows services
schtasks Schedule command(s) to run at a specific time
secedit Configure system security
set Display/set/remove environment variables in CMD
setlocal Control visibility of environment variables in a batch file
setspn Manage Service Principal Names for an Active Directory service account
setx Set Environment Variables permanently
sfc System File Checker
share List/edit a file share or print on any computer
shellrunas Used to run a command as a different user
shift Change the position of the batch parameters in a batch file
shortcut Create a Windows shortcut
shutdown Shutdown the computer
sleep Put computer to sleep for specified number of seconds
slmgr Software Licensing Management tool for activation and KMS
sort Used to sort and display a redirected or piped input
start Start a program, command, or batch file
strings Find ANSI and UNICODE strings in binary files
subinacl Display/modify ACEs for file and folder permissions
subst Associate a path with a drive letter
sysmon Monitor and log system activity to Windows event log
systeminfo Display detailed configuration information about the computer
T
takeown Used to take the ownership of a file
taskkill Used to terminate on or more running processes
tasklist Display a list of running apps and services.
tcmsetup Enable/disable TAPI client
telnet Communicate with a remote machine using TELNET protocol
tftp Transfer files to and from a remote machine running TFTP protocol
time Display/change system time
timeout Delay a batch file execution for specified seconds
title Change the text on top of CMD window
touch Change file timestamps
tracerpt Process event trace logs and generate trace analysis report
tracert Trace route to a remote host by sending ICMP request messages
tree Display a folder structure in the form of a graphical tree
tsdiscon Terminate a remote desktop connection
tskill Terminate a running process on a RD Session Host server
tssutdn Shutdown/reboot a terminal server remotely
type Show contents of a text file
typeperf Write performance data to a CMD window or a log file
tzutil Time Zone Utility
U
unlodctr Remove performance counter names and explain text for a service from the registry
V
ver Show version number of installed OS
verify Verify whether files are saved correctly on the disk
vol Show disk volume label and serial number
vssadmin Show shadow copy backups, installed shadow copy writers and providers
W
w32tm Access Windows Time Service Utility
waitfor Used to synchronize events between networked computer(s)
wevtutil Retrieve information about event logs and publishers
where Find and display file(s) in the current directory
whoami Display information about the active user
windiff Compare contents of two files or sets of files
winrm Windows Remote Management
winrs Windows Remote Shell
wmic Windows Management Instrumentation Command
wuauclt Windows Update Agent to downIoad new update files
X
xcalcs Change ACLs for files and folders
xcopy Copy files or directory trees to another folder
:: Comment

And it is done! If you think we forgot to add any other cmd commands to this list, please let us know. Also, get a copy of the CMD command list in PDF format here. And expect more command-line tricks soon. Also, don’t forget to check the CMD keyboard shortcuts listed below.

 

Command line keyboard shortcuts 

 

Here are some important CMD keyboard shortcuts to make your work on the command line easier.

CMD Keyboard Shortcuts Function
F1 Pastes the last executed command (character by character)
F2 Copies characters from the previous command
F3 Repeats the last command
F4 Deletes current prompt text up to the entered character
F5 Pastes recently executed commands (does not cycle)
F6 Pastes ^Z to the prompt
F7 Shows list of all previous commands from the command history
F8 Type character and press F8 key to cycle through matching commands
F9 Asks for the number of the command from the F7 list to paste
Up Arrow Cycles through previous commands from the command history
Right Arrow Auto-fills characters from previous command one by one
Tab Auto-fills file/folder names
Alt+F7 Clears command history
Esc Erases current line

 

Command line keyboard shortcuts 

Attrib (syntax: attrib) – You can use the attrib command to display or change the read-only, archive, system, and hidden attributes of any computer file or directory. You can run this command at the command prompt in all versions of Windows.

Background Smart Transfer Service (syntax: bitsadmin) – The bitsadmin command allows you to create and monitor downIoads and uploads. By default, it gives you access to information related to your tasks in the command window. However, if you want to access information about a task created by another user, you will need to run the command in a command prompt with administrator privileges.

Change Directory (syntax: chdir) – Use the chdir command to display the current directory and switch directories. For example, if you type chdir and press Enter, the current directory will be displayed. To go to the top level, type chdir\ and press Enter. This command is one of the most basic cmd commands and is available in all versions of Windows.

Check Disk (syntax: chkdsk) – This is a built-in tool in Windows that helps you find and fix hard disk errors. Depending on the size and condition of your hard drive, chkdsk may take a few minutes to an hour or longer to run. You can do the same with a tool like System Mechanic.

Cmd (syntax: cmd) – Use the cmd command to launch a command prompt from the run dialog.

Color (syntax: color) – This is one of the best cmd tricks you will come across. Allows you to change the background and text color of the command line window. To see the available color options, run color/ at the command line.

Delete (syntax: del) – You can use this command to delete files. Note that when you delete files with the del command, you delete them completely. So use this powerful command with caution.

Directory (syntax: dir) – The dir command is one of the most popular command line commands and lists all the files and subdirectories in a particular directory. It also displays other useful information, including the total number of files listed in the directory, the total amount of free space, and the drive’s serial number.

Erase (syntax: erase) – This command is the same as the del command. You can use it to permanently delete any file.

Exit (syntax: exit) – Do you want to exit the current command line session? Simply type exit and press Enter.

Find (syntax: find) – This is one of the most popular Windows command line commands. Allows you to search for a specific sequence of characters in one or more files.

Group Policy Results (syntax: gpresult) – Use this command to display the Group Policy that applies to your computer.

Help (syntax: help) – If you want to learn about the syntax and usage of a command, you should use the help command.

Internet Protocol Configuration (syntax: ipconfig) – This is one of the most useful cmd commands for getting network information. Displays the default gateway, subnet mask, and IP address for all network adapters. To run the command, simply type ipconfig and then press Enter. You will see something like this in the command line.

Ksetup (syntax: ksetup) – The ksetup command allows you to connect to a Kerberos server.

Logoff (syntax: logoff) – Run this command to end the user’s session from the command line. You can also use the logout command to end sessions on remote computers.

Create directory (syntax: mkdir) – As the name suggests, the mkdir command allows you to create one or more new directories within the current directory. In the screenshot below, I’m using it to create a new directory called “computer”.

Message (syntax: msg) – The msg command is one of the most interesting command line tricks. You can use it to talk to other users on the network through the command line, just like old computers that didn’t have a graphical user interface.

Net (syntax: net) – Use this command to manage various aspects of your network. Its settings include network users, network shares, and network print jobs, among others.

Openfiles (syntax: openfiles) – Use the openfiles command to view or unmount files and directories open on your computer.

Ping (syntax: ping) – The popular cmd command, ping, is used to find and troubleshoot network problems.

Print (syntax: print) – Did you know that you can print a text file from the command line in Windows 10? Just use the print command, which is also available in other versions of Windows. However, you can use this command to print only those files that you can access from the command line.

Qprocess (syntax: qprocess) – This command provides information about all running processes.

Rename (syntax: rename) – You can change the name of a file, folder, or directory from the command line using the rename command. However, you must have “write” or “edit” permission on the file, folder, or directory you are renaming to complete the command.

System File Checker (syntax: sfc) – If you suspect problems with important Windows files, you can check and replace them by running the sfc command.

Shutdown (syntax: scandisk) – There are two cmd prompt commands you can use to log off your computer. The logout command is the first and the shutdown command is the second. However, you can do much more with the latter, such as shutting down, restarting, and hibernating not only your computer, but also any other computer you have access to over the network.

Start (syntax: start) – Wondering how to open a new cmd window from an existing one? Just type start in the command line and press Enter. A new command window will pop up in a flash.

Systeminfo (syntax: systeminfo) – To learn more about your computer’s configuration, such as details about its BIOS, hard drive, processor, operating system, and other specifications, simply run the systeminfo command. You need a command prompt with administrative privileges to run this command.

Taskkill (syntax: taskkill) – Use the taskkill command to kill one or more processes from the command line.

Umount (syntax: umount) – You can use the umount command to remove network file system drives.

Ver (syntax: ver) – The ver command is one of the simpler Windows commands and allows you to check the current version number of Windows. When I ran the ver command, the following information appeared:

W32tm (syntax: w32tm) – You can use the w32tm command to diagnose Windows time problems.

Xcopy (syntax: xcopy) – Want to copy files located in one directory to another using the command line? Just execute the xcopy command. It is available in all versions of Windows.

Wrapping Up:

A lot has changed in Windows 10, but the command line remains the same. It’s still a powerful tool and can give you access to several features that you won’t find in the otherwise intuitive Windows 10 GUI. This command line interpreter allows you to interact directly with your system, of course using the wealth of Windows Cmd commands available. In this post, I have listed many commands that will hopefully prove useful to the average Windows user. Thank you for reading!

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